10 years of service quality measurement: reviewing the use of the SERVQUAL instrument

Simon Nyeck, Miguel Morales, Riadh Ladhari, Frank Pons

Abstract


En 1988, Parasuraman, Zeithaml y Berry elaboraron un instrumento para medir la calidad del servicio. Desde esa fecha, este instrumento ha sido utilizado en numerosos estudios sobre distintas industrias y en diferentes países, tanto por académicos como por profesionales. Sin embargo, a pesar de su amplia difusión, pocos estudios tratan los aspectos de dimensionalidad y validez de esta escala de medición. El presente artículo describe las prácticas observadas con relación a estos aspectos a través del análisis de los estudios que han usado SERVQUAL durante los últimos diez años. A partir de una muestra de 60 trabajos empíricos que usan la escala SERVQUAL, se analiza los principales aspectos de validez tratados por cada autor, empleando una plantilla de análisis adaptada del estudio de Stokes y Miller (1975). Con base en los datos disponibles, el estudio sugiere que la escala desarrollada por Parasuraman, Zeithaml y Berry (1988) no presenta una estructura dimensional estable de cinco factores. Finalmente, el artículo evalúa la influencia de las caraterísticas del diseño de la investigación sobre la confiabilidad de SERVQUAL.

In 1988, Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry developed an instrument to measure the quality of service. Since that date, this instrument has been used in numerous studies on different industries and in different countries, both by academics and professionals. However, despite its wide dissemination, few studies deal with the dimensionality and validity aspects of this measurement scale. This article describes the practices observed in relation to these aspects through the analysis of the studies that SERVQUAL has used during the last ten years. From a sample of 60 empirical studies using the SERVQUAL scale, the main aspects of validity dealt with by each author are analysed, using an analysis template adapted from the study of Stokes and Miller (1975). Based on the available data, the study suggests that the scale developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1988) does not present a stable dimensional structure of five factors. Finally, the article evaluates the influence of the characteristics of the research design on the reliability of SERVQUAL.


Keywords


Calidad total; instrumentos de medición; servicios al cliente; total quality; measurement tools; client services

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